A couple great questions

I was recently sitting with a student who was working on a few math problems. As I sat down next to him I recognized that a couple of the problems he had completed were not correct. Instead of interrupting him, I watched as he worked on one more similar problem. The student probably had no idea that there was anything wrong in the problems he had completed as he was confidently continuing on. As I sat there, I was looking at the previous work to see if I could figure out what he had done wrong, but the aha moment came as he continued with the problem he was working on. I saw him skip a step. Immediately, I could see that was why he had missed the previous problems.

I asked the student to pause their work so that we could go back to the first problem. I asked him to explain to me how he knew that his first answer was correct. He started talking through the process. As he got to the critical step, he recognized his mistake all on his own. “Oh my gosh! I skipped a step!!!” He grabbed an eraser, went back to the problem, and restarted.

As I reflect on the moment, it would have been so easy to stop the student as soon as I noticed a mistake and gone through the process with him, but the reality is that by allowing him finding his own mistake, he created a new neural pathway. It’s the beginning of a learning journey, and by recognizing the mistake on his own, he learned it better than if I had just pointed out the error. We looked at the other problems on his page, he noticed the same mistake several times, and made the appropriate corrections.

A couple things stand out to me about this experience. First, if an adult hadn’t recognized the mistake in the moment, that child would have practiced the same process on all the practice problems incorrectly, and therefore build a working model in his brain that was incorrect. Second, I didn’t actually have to tell him he did anything wrong. I just asked him a simple question: “How do you know that?”

This experience reminded me of a quote from Loris Malaguzzi. If that name doesn’t ring a bell, he was an early childhood educator who founded the educational philosophy known as the Reggio Emilia Approach.

Malaguzzi, Loris. Your Image of The Child: Where Teaching Begins. June 1993, https://www.reggioalliance.org/downloads/malaguzzi:ccie:1994.pdf.

What does this mean for our students? How often do we only see the product of a student’s work? Maybe in class we have them working independently on a white board, and then they hold up their answer. Some are correct, but occasionally you’ll have some that aren’t. Without watching the work being done, you may not immediately know how to support that student. This is why small group and individual conferring can be so valuable!

I know that working independently with all students is hard – there’s only so much time in a day. When we think about what kids need though, it’s that time with an adult watching them do the work, giving them feedback, and helping them to recognize their strengths and weaknesses. Recently I was listening to an interview of Lana Steiner, a math educator who loves to ask her students two questions: “How do you know?” and “Tell me more.” These questions allow her to better understand how a student arrived at their current understanding, and when necessary, to build in ways to support the student.

When we truly take the time to listen to our students, we validate their image of personal self-worth, and we give them the time to explain their thinking and reasoning. I have long believed that the person who does the most talking in class is the person who is doing the most thinking.

I encourage you to do some self-assessment. Pay attention to what is happening in your class in the coming week. Try to track the amount of time that you spend talking – during mini-lessons or other times of instruction – compared to the amount of time your students are able to talk. If you are doing more of the talking, how could you create more spaces for your students to be the ones doing the talking? Could you implement some more small group work, or turn and talk? Could you ask more open-ended questions? Could you decrease the length of your own explanations? Or depending on what is happening in your classroom, maybe it would work to set up role plays for students, or add in some reader’s theater. Or maybe take on the mindset of Socrates – pretend you don’t know anything about a topic and ask lots of follow-up questions that will get them thinking. Or maybe you need to get comfortable with wait time.

What are your thoughts? What have you learned about students by watching them carry out their work? Or by allowing them to explain their thinking? I know that I have often been impressed to learn what my students know by listening more and talking less!

Where are they now?

I’m not sure how many of you know this about me, but when I was younger, I was actively involved in scouting. I started in a Cub Scout pack/den based in my elementary school. Eventually, I crossed over to a Boy Scout troop with many of the members of my pack. Scouting helped to introduce me to many activities that the typical suburban kid may not be able to experience: camping; backpacking; hiking; canoeing; and more. Every summer our troop would go to scout camp and spend a week together in the wilderness. While we had moments of free time, much of our time at camp was filled with opportunities to earn merit badges.

One of the requirements for advancement through the ranks of scouting is tied to merit badges. To earn the Eagle Scout rank, you’re required to complete 21 merit badges, 13 of which are required, plus another 8 of your choice. One of the merit badges I recall working on at scout camp was the Orienteering Merit Badge. The skill of orienteering is all about being able to find your way from point to point with the use of a map and compass.

The reason I’m thinking about orienteering is based on a couple of conversations I’ve listened to on recent podcasts. The gist of the podcasts was that far too often, when students are struggling academically, we start to talk about the skills they are lacking. We might be looking at our resources and notice that a child seems behind, or we might be looking at our standards and see a skill that the child cannot meet. We then start talking about what the child cannot do.

When you are on an orienteering course, all you have is a map, a compass, and a set of directions. Those items are meaningless if you do not know where you are on the map. In today’s world of GPS on our phone, many of us might say that they can just pull their phone out and figure out how to get where they needed to. The outdoor survivalist in me is bound to ask what you would do if you do not have a signal? Or what if the battery is dead? We must be able to identify where we are on the map to figure out where we are going.

This is true with our students too. We have our standards, they are what we are ultimately accountable to, that map out what our students should know. We can also look back at previous grade levels to see how those standards progress over the years. But to figure out what to do next with a student, how to support a student who is struggling, we must know where they are at the start. Once we know where they are in terms of skills the students do have, we’re better able to identify what comes next. For example, in math we start with basic skills like counting and number identification, work our way into addition and subtraction, and eventually will make it to the point of things like geometric theorems or factoring polynomials. There is a progression of skills that all build upon one another. When we know where a student is on that progression, we can identify skills that come next.

If you work in a district that utilizes NWEA like mine does, from your student profile report, you can drill down to specific skills that this assessment feels a student is ready to develop. Now, as with any standardized test, take this with a grain of salt. You may find that a student has some needs that fall outside of what is suggested. There is no better resource than your formative assessment and responsive teaching, however this is an excellent starting place.

So, what can we do with this knowledge? I would encourage you to start framing your conversations about what kids can’t do a little differently. Instead of pointing out what students cannot do, start to notice what they can do. Then think about what comes next in the progression. Whether we’re talking about math, reading, or writing, there are typically agreed upon progressions that will help guide the learning process.

How might this impact your next conversation about a student who is struggling? Can you think of some different things you might say? Different ways to approach the struggle? Share your thoughts in the comments below!

Better is good

Better is good

As many of you know, I like to read widely as I feel that there are lessons to be learned about education from books that are not specifically education books. I have a whole shelf of books in my office that is devoted to leadership, economics, and behavioral sciences. Related to that, I also listen to a wide variety of podcasts because again, there are lessons about education from non-educational podcasts. One of the podcasts that I love is called Freakonomics. It came about after Stephen Dubner and Steven Levitt wrote a book by the same name. The gist of Freakonomics is that there is a hidden side to everything and that when you view things from an economist’s standpoint, you may be able to better understand why things happen the way that they do.

In a recent episode (which you can find here), Dubner had the behavioral scientist Richard Thaler on the show. Thaler is the author of the book Nudge, and after listening to this interview, I added it to my Goodreads list! In the recently updated version of the book, there’s a three-word quote from Barack Obama. “Better is good,” he said.

Here in education, sometimes I feel like we have conversations around what’s happening, and we’re looking for the silver bullet. The thing that will suddenly make everything better. A couple of examples come to mind:

When we are talking about our school improvement plan, and we have set goals that feel too broad, we come to the realization that it’s not possible to meet all the steps that we want to take in the time frame that is available. We need to narrow our focus a little. But invariably, that means picking something that we all know is important and cutting it out of the plan, knowing that we can’t do all the things at one time. But how do you decide? Depending on who is involved in the conversation, there may be people with different “sacred cows” that they are not willing to let go of. So ultimately, nobody wants to be the one who says we must cut this one thing. But we end up having to make some difficult decisions because in the end it is not possible to do it all!

Another time that we want to have the perfect solution is when we’re dealing with student behaviors. There are times where we might bring together a team of people to come up with the best solutions. A student might be acting out, or putting hands on other students, and ultimately not appropriately participating in learning opportunities. It’s tempting to think about what we are going to do to be able to get that child to actively participate in the classroom. But the reality is that we cannot address that issue until we take time to address the underlying behavior of acting out. We must set a priority for a student, and attack the first issue with all our energy, then once that is under control, we can move on to the next biggest problem. Sometimes we’re tempted to build a behavior plan that tries to get at all the issues. In my experience, those big plans do not work because we are never able to devote enough time to any one thing, which means that nothing gets better. We must pick one thing to be the focus for right now. When it’s better, then we can pick the next focus.

Hopefully, these examples can serve as a reminder that there is no silver bullet (perfect solutions), but maybe there are lots of bronze BBs (better options).

Voltaire is credited with having said:

Interesting fact: This has been utilized by many. The Italian version that comes from a proverb says "the best is the enemy of the good." 

Others have spoken of the golden mean, which says that 20% of the time is needed to complete 80% of the work, while the last 20% of the task takes 80% of the effort. 

In King Lear, Shakespeare says "striving to be better, oft we mar what's well."

And Conficius is attributed with the statement "better a diamond with a flaw than a pebble without."

This aphorism is one that’s often hard for educators. Think about it, most of us have known we wanted to be teachers ever since we were little. Many of us were probably that teacher’s pet, doing all the things that a teacher asked, and then some. We probably played school, and you better believe we had the PERFECT classroom! Not only did our students (maybe our stuffed animals at home, or our friends at daycare) behave perfectly, but our classroom was decorated to perfection!

But the truth is, perfection is an unattainable goal! Think about that for a second. One of the things I have learned is that every time I say to myself “It will be perfect after this one more thing,” then I find something else I could do that would make that version perfect. The finish line for perfect just keeps moving farther down the road!

So back to that quote “Better is good.” Sometimes we might be having a conversation about some issue that we can’t completely solve, but we have an idea that might make things better. What we must be willing to say to ourselves is “Well, better is good.” We can talk until we’re blue in the face to come up with the perfect solution, and maybe never actually get there. In that case, we should do what we can to make a small change here, or a small change there, because better is good.

Can you ever think of an experience you’ve had where you had to take incremental steps to make things better a little bit at a time? Share your comments below!

All kids can learn

All kids can learn

If you are anything like me, at some point in your career as an educator, you have had to write your belief statement. I know when I was in my undergraduate program, that was a requirement as we were building our professional portfolio. I was asked to do the same again during my Master’s Program. It was something that I was asked to think about, or even write, by administrators that I worked for earlier in my career. If I were to go back through each of my belief statements, I am sure there is one phrase that would appear in every statement – some version of “I believe all kids can learn.” 

When you pause to think about it, the statement “all kids can learn” has almost become a cliché. But it is also something that we all feel like we are supposed to say. The reality is that saying that all kids can learn adds little to the practices that exist in our classroom. We must go just a step further – we must define what we will do if a student is not learning. 

I would guess we have all had a student (or more) that struggled in our classroom for some reason. Maybe a student came to your class with fewer skills than most of your students. Maybe a student’s behavior appeared to impact their ability to participate in learning activities. Maybe a student did not seem interested in the learning that you had to offer. Maybe you believe that a student’s ability is fixed and that you have little influence over that – this may mean that you believe a student needs a specific program or track to meet their needs. Or maybe you think that a student could learn if they took better advantage of the opportunities you offer in the classroom. Or maybe we are content with just seeing growth from a student, even if that student is not closing any gaps that may exist. 

Do any of these things mean that a child is unable to learn? No. Instead, there are challenges that may make it harder for a student to meet expectations that you would have for the children in your classroom. But by no means does it mean that a child is unable to meet those expectations. 

So instead of asking if we believe that all kids can learn, we need to ask a couple of questions that will help us build a greater sense of purpose: 

  1. If we believe all kids can learn, exactly what is it that we will expect them to learn
  1. If we believe all kids can learn, how do we respond when they do not learn

These questions can help us drive meaningful conversations as a collaborative team, or grade-level PLC (Professional Learning Communities). It helps us to identify the work we need to be engaging in with each child that walks into our classrooms and schools. These are questions we must constantly be wrestling with throughout the course of a school year. 

In the past, when we think of school through the industrial model of learning, it was acceptable to sort and select students based on their abilities or willingness to master parts of the curriculum. In the industrial age, there were more opportunities to pursue an occupation that did not require higher-order thinking skills. Now we are living in the information age. In this society, it needs to be a belief of schools that we will bring all students to their full potential. This will help them prepare for their future and the jobs that will exist when they are ready for a career. 

This means having the belief that we will establish ambitious standards of learning that we expect ALL students to achieve. And here is the thing, all really does mean all. We cannot fall back on the mindset that some of our students are not capable of meeting those expectations. 

During my career in education, I remember several colleagues who would make statements like “My babies just can’t manage that.” Let us be real for a moment. Efficacy is a real thing. That belief that we have in our students will impact on how they do. Henry Ford has a quote that comes to mind:

Similarly, if we believe our students can, or believe they can’t, we’re right. Efficacy is all about what we believe. If we do not believe our students are capable of something, then we can almost guarantee that they will never find success in that thing! And I will be honest, I have had those thoughts too at times. 

But here is the wonderful thing! You do not have to do this on your own! Hopefully, you have colleagues around you that can support you in your goals for your students. Hopefully, you can work with the resources in your building to solve problems for those kids who are struggling. Hopefully, your PLC can work together as a collaborative team to address the questions above to find how to best support ever student that walks into your classroom. As you dig into the questions, you’ll find new ideas, new solutions, and new successes. And your students will learn. Maybe not as quick as we would like, but with time, with focus, and with belief, they will get there!

What are your thoughts? Have you ever found success with a student that you were not sure you would be able to? Was there something you learned from that experience? Share with us in the comments below!

Logistics over learning?

Logistics over learning?

Recently I have been spending a lot of time thinking about the power of learning in the school setting – not just for students, but also for the teachers and staff of our school. In turn, that has led me to look into the history of public schools in the US. As a quick refresher, American public schools were originally organized according to the concepts and principles of the factory model of learning. Around the late nineteenth century, effort had been put into the creation of school in the image of a factory. One of the books that exemplified this was Frederick Winslow Taylor’s book Principles of Scientific Management. Taylor argued that “one best system” could solve any organizational problem. In this theory, it was the job of a manager to identify the best way, then train workers to do so. This hierarchical, top-down management created a rigid sense of time and accountability. This process is best modeled by the assembly line that existed in factories of the time. The advantage of an assembly line is that the parts that made up the assembly line were viewed as interchangeable. Any worker could complete any role with the appropriate training. Business leaders and politicians argued that schools should adopt a similar model to produce the kinds of workers that were needed in industry. 

Now, I see a lot that is problematic in this quick overview above. First, “one best system?” Does that ever exist anywhere? I think if we looked at factories and assembly lines of today, we would find them to be vastly different from the version of the early 1900s. Innovation has changed the process. Schools need to keep up with those changes. Next, do schools exist in a hierarchical, top-down model? I mean, they may exist, but my experience is that they are not super successful overall. Finally, there seems to be some important voices left out of the creation of a school model based on the factory – educators! Shouldn’t their voice, their knowledge be at the table when we are trying to build a system of learning? That may be the mindset of many educators now. But in the 1900s, most educators went along with the plans set forth. Check out this quote from Ellwood P. Cubberly, an American Educator, author, and Dean of the Stanford University School of Education: 

“Our schools are, in a sense, factories in which raw materials (children) are to be shaped and fashioned in order to meet the various demands of life. The specifications for manufacturing come from the demands of the twentieth century civilization, and it is the business of the school to build its pupils according to the specifications laid down.” 

Ellwood P. Cubberley (1868-1941) – American Educator, author, and Dean of the Stanford University School of Education

This thinking quickly became the standard for schools and school districts. A whole new hierarchy was set up, similar in thinking to the business: decisions would flow from the state board of education down to local school boards, on to superintendents, then to principals, and finally to teachers who would, like factory workers, be expected to follow the guidance in lockstep. The students did not matter. They were no more than raw material in the formation of a more perfect industrialized workforce. 

I would love to be able to say that this thinking from the 1900s has left, but I cannot. Those factory model mindsets still prevail in many school settings here in America. If you ask politicians what is needed to make education more successful, they will talk about stricter standards, better methods of evaluation of teachers, or possibly a longer school day or year. The focus, far too often, seems to be on procedures rather than results. And that brings us to the title of today’s blog. Far too much time is being spent on logistics instead of focused on learning. But when we talk to business leaders, many of them are saying that they are not able to find workers appropriately prepared for the workforce. They are telling us that the skills workers need have more to do with collaboration, teamwork, and problem solving. Check out these results from the National Association of Colleges and Employers Job Outlook Survey. These results come from the 2020 version: 

NACE Job Outlook Survey

Think about the conversations you have at school. If you are like me, far too often we get drawn into conversations about the organization of the schedule in the day, the length of a school day or year, the teaching of a prescribed curriculum, the size of a class, the use of a textbook, or the number of credits earned. Far too little time is spent paying attention to whether learning has occurred. And how do any of those conversations help us prepare kids for the future that business leaders say they need?  

So here is the nudge – let us all take a moment to think about how we can move our conversations away from trying to identify the “one best system” and move towards a mindset of wanting to “get it right, and then make it better and better and better.” 

So, what might that look like? It might mean trying something totally outside the box. It might mean piloting a new strategy. It might mean utilizing supplements to your curriculum from online sources like Kahn Academy. When we analyze how kids are doing, and we really think about the results, we must recognize if the steps we are taking are impacting student learning. If the answer is no, then we must analyze what we will do to reach those kids. And if the answer is yes, then we must think about what we can do to extend that learning even further. 

The reality is that the top-down factory model is not adequate for meeting the needs of our students. It is not adequate for preparing students for their future. We need to shift our goals to really invest in what we can do to get all students to master rigorous content, learn how to learn, pursue a productive level of employment, and compete in the global economy. 

If you take a moment to read between the lines of what this entails, you might notice something. In our professional learning community, we have four guiding questions: 

  1. What do we want students to know and be able to do? 
  1. How will we know they have learned it? 
  1. What will we do when they have not learned it? 
  1. What will we do to extend the learning when they already know it? 

I think the power to shift the system exists within each member of a school. By participating in meaningful professional learning communities, we can take that top-down approach from the factory model, and flip it on its head. We can take control of what needs to happen in our classrooms to provide support to our students. 

What steps can you commit to in order to make a shift in your practice? What do you need to be able to take the next step in that shift? As Nike likes to remind us, Just Do It. Too often in education we get stuck in the planning phase, and not moving into the action phase. Act today! 

Celebrate small victories

Celebrate small victories

I was recently listening to an episode of How I Built This, an NPR podcast hosted by Guy Raz. In a typical episode, Guy dives into a conversation with innovators, entrepreneurs, and idealists to learn about the stories behind some of the world’s best-known companies. In a typical year, there would be a How I Built This summit that would bring together some of the great minds in business and innovation. As we know, life for the past 18ish months has not been normal. As a result, the 2021 version was hosted online. This month they have been releasing some of the interviews from the online summit in the podcast feed. One of the recent episodes was a conversation with Brené Brown (You should really take a half-hour and give it a listen! It is phenomenal!) 

This is not the first time that I have referred to Brené on my blog, but it seems that no matter how much I read by and about her, or how much I listen to her speak, I walk away with something new. In this episode, the conversation revolved primarily around the topic of leadership. According to Brené, good leadership means practicing four key skills: Bravery; Trust; Gratitude; and Vulnerability. Now I know that this blog is written primarily for educators and that most of the readers are classroom teachers. It might not always be easy to see the connection between being the teacher in a classroom and being a leader, but the connection is undoubtedly there. As a classroom teacher, you set the standard of learning and success for the students in your classroom. You build trust with and between your students. You practice gratitude with your students and their families on a typical day. And I really do not know any teacher who has not had to model some vulnerability with their students. 

In traditional leadership, we often think of businesspeople who led massive companies from a position of absolute power. They make the rules, hand them down to their managers, and then managers enforce those rules upon employees. There are lots of real businesspeople out there that might fit in this category, but one of the TV shows that I found during Covid quarantine was Succession on HBO. The show centers around the Roy family, the owners of Waystor RoyCo, which is an imaginary global media and entertainment business. Logan Roy is the patriarch of the family and the CEO of Waystar. His leadership could never be described as meeting the four key skills that Brené shares. In contrast, traditional business leaders (including Logan Roy in Succession), lead through fear-inducing, hard-driving, fist-pounding attitudes. Large corporations are also not particularly good at celebrating success. Often when we think about large corporations, the focus is on the bottom line. How much profit did we bring in? What percentage of the market do we control? There is seldom time in these types of businesses to be happy about small successes. Did we make a customer happy today? Did one of our employees produce a solution to a problem that existed in our company? 

What I loved in listening to Brené speak was hearing her perspective on the importance of celebration. She went on to talk about how sometimes we only want to celebrate the important things because there is this belief (that is not backed up by any kind of research) that if we celebrate the little things, we will never make it to the important things because people will “take their foot off the gas.” But in the research that Brené has done as a research professor at the University of Houston, she has found the opposite to be true. 

Often in moments that should bring us pure joy or happiness, our brains take us to a place of sadness. Let me give you an example from my own life: I love to ride my bike. In the summertime, I rode 3 to 4 days per week. On one of my routes, there is a bridge that goes over the interstate near my house. When it was built, the side rail of the bridge was designed to be low. Since there is not a sidewalk along the road, the designers probably wanted to save some money. But when I ride across that bridge on my bike, I have this irrational fear that if I get too close to the edge of the bridge, my bike and I will fall over onto the interstate. You might have your own version of irrational fear in your own life. 

For whatever reason, our brains seem to dress rehearse tragedies. Some might say that these moments help us to adapt, to do things that are less dangerous, but I would say that is bunk in this case. While I have fallen off my bike before, it has never happened when I was riding intensely. It only happens when I am relaxed, when I am not really paying attention, and typically also when I am moving slowly. I ride my bike because I love it. Because it brings me joy. But this irrational fear causes me to not be able to enjoy my ride as much as I should. If I lean into that irrational fear, I might stop riding my bike as much. I might become stagnant in my own progression as a cyclist (not that I would be going pro anytime soon). 

One of the key messages that I take away from this podcast is that we must take the time to celebrate victories – and not just the big ones! We must celebrate the small victories as well! When we lean into small moments of joy, when we celebrate that success as a class, then we prevent burnout for ourselves. We keep excitement for learning and growth alive for our students. We help build environments of greater innovation and creativity. 

What small victories can you celebrate? Is there something that has gone particularly well in your classroom recently? Or your celebration might come from something that is happening in your personal life outside of school and the classroom. Work on recognizing those victories – big or small. Lean into them. We must be grateful for every moment of good that comes to us! 

When the game doesn’t work

A couple weeks ago, I wrote a post called Practice (you can see that post here). The gist of the post was based on a quote I saw in the book The Power of Moments: Why Certain Experiences Have Extraordinary Impact by Chip Heath and Dan Heath. Here’s that quote again:

The gist of the entire post revolved around building in more opportunities for “game day” experiences for our students. I had a really interesting follow up about that post with a person who works at our school. The question was about how the the “game day” experiences impact the painfully shy or anxious student.

I think those of us in education just had a current or former student come to mind. That kid who never wants to talk in class. Who would never want to share a presentation. Who would never read their writing no matter how good you tell them it is. I definitely have that student in my mind!

This is such a great point. As this person shared with me, no matter our experiences, we probably all know people who are really good at the day to day tasks of their life, but the moment that they have to be “on stage” they just fall apart.

Now, I have to admit, when I wrote this post, I hadn’t read all of The Power of Moments, but what I later came to realize is that maybe it isn’t about creating huge “game day” type experiences, but rather we want to think about ways we can create more peak experiences.

The following pair of graphs come from The Power of Moments, and depict a student’s experience. The graph on the left might represent a typical student’s day-to-day emotions at school. What do you notice? Pretty flat, right? But the graph on the right represents the day-to-day emotions of a student who gets to participate in a bigger experience. This one represents a student who participated in a project called The Trial of Human Nature (I’m not going to go into the details of that experience here, if you want to know more you’ll have to read the book).

What I think I was trying to say in the previous post on this topic was that we need to create more of these peak moments for our students. But as I look back at the post, most of the ideas I suggested involve tasks that border on performance. Not all our students are completely ready for that. Now, there is an argument here to be made for pushing kids outside of their comfort zone, but I also think there’s an argument for letting students work to their strengths. When we have those painfully shy students, asking them to share their invention at the convention or speak about an area of study with adults they don’t know may generate a level or stress in our students that prevent learning. Think about it, stress is a reaction of our lower brain, and when we are living in survival mode, we can’t access the prefrontal cortex. In other words, when you’re stressed out, you don’t learn very much!

This is where some student agency might come into play for these peak moments. What if our students are working in groups and decide that they want to create an informational video about their research. If there’s a shy student in the group, they can still help with the research, be the person behind the camera or directing the action, and then become the master at iMovie to edit the video together. When the video is shared, they get to take just as much pride in the performance as the students who are front and center while not moving too far out of their comfort zone.

Or maybe your class is doing a wax museum project (always a crowd favorite for parents!), and there’s a student who can’t manage the task of speaking to people he doesn’t know. Learning how to research the topic is really what you are probably looking for. Couldn’t that student do the research, then create a blog post? Maybe they then use an animation app to take a picture of their person, and then animate that picture to have their own voice reading a brief introduction. They still do all the same work, without the super stressful public performance. And the technology might act as an accelerator for kids in the learning process by increasing their effort at perfection, which in turn creates a better project.

Ultimately, what I think I was trying to get at in my previous post, was that we want to create more peak moments for our students. Those moments are exciting, which in turn activates a part of the brain that helps make memories. When we create joyful learning environments with peak moments, our students will be banging down the door to get in to school each day. As I’ve heard Dave Burgess say, would your students want to come to class if they had to buy a ticket? We want them to be begging for what we’re offering. And while we can’t offer peak moments every day, we have to be intentional about building those types of moments into the learning environment in a way that students see that what they are doing today will build to a peak moment in the future (and here’s a suggestion – our kids probably don’t see a test or a quiz as a peak moment).

What peak moments have you created for students this year? As you wrap up your school year, ask your students what are the most memorable moments of the school year. Those peak moments will give you ideas of they types of things you might want to create in the future!

Back to normal?

Back to normal?

Recently I’ve been having a LOT of conversations with a wide variety of people about what the future holds for us next school year. Parents of incoming kindergarteners want to know what their child’s kindergarten year will be like. Teachers want to plan for what the learning environment will look like. Neighbors have even stopped me while I’m out walking the dog to ask questions about what’s going to happen. The question I’ve been hearing the most is, “When will we be able to get back to normal?”

I understand the concept of the question. Part of our human condition is to be averse to change. Change creates dissonance, and dissonance makes us uncomfortable. But… I think it’s also worth pointing out that dissonance is where learning and growth happens. If we don’t feel a little bit uncomfortable in our learning, we aren’t stretching ourselves.

Earlier this week though, I saw this quote pop up in my Twitter feed:

I think sometimes we must take a moment to reframe the things that people are asking us. Instead of a focus on what we want to get back to, let’s take a moment to reflect on the learning and growth that has happened in this past school year. What are the things that we want to carry on? Here are a few that stand out to me:

1 – The power of the video chat. As we’ve shifted through various modes of learning here in my district, one of the things that has been a constant is the utilization of Zoom in our classrooms for both student learning events and professional learning. Think about what this technology does for us! We can reach out to anyone in the world and bring them into our classroom. Want to talk to the author of your current read-aloud? Reach out and see if you can set up a zoom. What about an astronaut while you’re studying space science? Or maybe you could hold a virtual celebration of learning where students can share their recent writing piece in the classroom while parents can watch it live from home or their work, or later on a recorded version! There are so many possibilities here!

2 – Options for flipped learning. I’ve had conversations with a couple of teachers who have leveraged the use of recorded lessons that students can watch and return to anytime to do the teaching of the minilesson, which frees up additional time in the classroom for conferring or for individual or small group support. An added benefit? Depending on how your students process information best, a live minilesson might be a challenge for some kids. They need to hear things multiple times; they need to stop and think or jot some notes. Having a video allows them to do all of this without a teacher needing to repeat themselves. Also, those videos can be used by students as a review tool later. Worried about the time it takes to record in advance? Record your minilesson live and then post to your learning management system. The benefits of going back to a recording still exist for your students!

3 – The ease of setting up parent meetings. Think back to pre-Covid times. How hard was it to set up a parent meeting? We’d have to email everyone involved to find a time that would work. Parents needed to be able to leave work or home in time to drive to school which probably added at least a half-hour of time on either side of the meeting for parents. Childcare for siblings could be an issue at times, and that would limit options for meeting times. On the other hand, with Zoom (or similar technology), I have set up meetings on the same day, or sometimes even within just a few minutes later to hold the meeting. Parents can hop on zoom from just about wherever they are.

4 – Relationships. Coming into this past school year, one of the things we were most nervous about was how to build relationships in this new environment. Our school district began the year in a virtual learning setting, and we didn’t know if it would be possible to really get to know our kids when they weren’t here at school. To help with this, we took our first two scheduled student days and set up individual zoom calls between the teacher and student. Parents were invited as well. By about lunch time on the first day, I had teacher sharing with me how powerful this was. Think about the beginning of the typical school year. When would you be able to have a 15 minute, uninterrupted conversation with any of your new students? What we have found in teaching this year is that many teachers feel that they have stronger relationships with this year’s class than any other class before. Considering that we had significant chunks of the year where all or some of our students were learning from home, this is amazing! We plan to create opportunities to build those early relationships with students again next school year even though we will hopefully be starting the year in an in-person learning model.

I am sure that other things come to mind for all of you who are reading this now. Instead of wondering so much about getting back to normal, let’s shift that thought and wonder about how we can get to our next reality!

Share with us in the comments below if you have things that you are planning to do differently moving forward. We’d love to hear your thoughts!

Practice

Practice

Over the years, I have participated in a wide variety of sports. I recall hours spent in the gym at the Boys Club for basketball, summer days on the ball field for baseball, spring and fall nights on the soccer field, and fall evenings on the football field. I also remember the ups and downs of hours of practice for each of those sports. But the best part of playing a sport was always the game. It made sweaty July days on the ball field, or two-a-days in August that much more worth it because we saw that our practice paid off in terms of performance when we were playing against the opposing team.

Recently, I’ve been reading the book The Power of Moments: Why Certain Experiences Have Extraordinary Impact by Chip Heath and Dan Heath. While I’m not finished with the book yet, the main idea that I’m getting so far is that our most memorable positive moments are all made up out of the same elements – elevation, insight, pride, and connection. If we are intentional in what we do and how we design experiences, we can create more of those powerful moments for ourselves and others. This seems to have some pretty obvious translation to the classroom setting.

One of the chapters is titled Build Peaks, and is all about creating experiences that rise above others. Several of the stories that are shared focus on classroom experiences that build peaks for students. In one high school, the teachers wanted to create a peak experience for their seniors, and created what’s called “Senior Exhibition,” which asked students to do what many of us might call a passion project or genius hour activity. Students were able to pick anything they wanted, it did not have to tie directly to curriculum. On the day of the exhibition, students gave an oral defense of their project, which many parents attended. In a normal school setting, parents are not able to see the outcome of student learning in person. Typically, the only outcome of learning that parents see is grades in the gradebook, or maybe an assignment that has been returned with feedback. This experience was different. Jeff Gilbert, one of the creators of the senior exhibition, and now a high school principal, shared:

All this talk about practice has me thinking about one of my all time favorite press conference rants by an athlete.

Now, I’m going to be really honest, I wasn’t a huge fan of Allen Iverson. As an Indiana kid, my heart was with Reggie Miller and the Pacers. But I still use phrases from this clip in everyday conversation. And in this clip, Iverson shares his passion for the game of basketball. In case you need a reminder, that passion isn’t about the practice. It’s about the game.

Going back to the quote above from The Power of Moments, when I read that passage, I had to put the book down for a moment. How do we go about making the experiences in our classrooms feel less like practices, and more like a game?

Let’s pause here for a moment. Grab a piece of scrap paper, or a post-it note, or go to the notes app on your phone. Make a quick list of the peak moments you remember from your schooling experiences? I’m going to focus on elementary since that’s the grade level that I’m working with. Go ahead, stop reading for a moment, jot some notes, and I’ll be here when you come back.

Here are a few of the moments that I recall: In third grade our class made bread – some of the moms came in and as groups we made the dough. Then they took it home, baked it, and brought it back in the afternoon. I can still remember the feeling of getting to take a bite of that warm, soft bread that I had helped to make. In fifth grade, we did an invention convention. Each student was asked to create a new invention. I built a desk that you could remove the back panel from and put on the other side so that it could work for either a right-handed or left-handed person. As a lefty, I was tired of my arm hanging off the side of my desk anytime that I was trying to write. The day of the convention, we presented to classmates and students in the other fifth grade class. That night we came back to school and got to present to parents who came to learn about our various inventions. I had one parent tell me he was a lefty and would buy a desk like that. Many more that were right-handed said they never would have noticed the problem. In sixth grade we researched a foreign country. I worked with a partner to learn as much as I could about Belgium. We took some of our combined kitchen skills and made snacks from Belgium to share with our visitors. We also had a presentation board with pictures and interesting facts. During the day, students from all over the school came to visit our presentations in the gym, and that night we came back and presented to our parents. I was able to share all that I had learned, and found out that the family of one of my good friends had ancestral roots in Belgium. It was an instant connection and conversation piece that night.

What do all of those memories have in common? They weren’t practice. They were the game. If we want students fired up about school and about learning, we’ve got to be intentional about finding opportunities to create more games for students. Could you invite parents to come in so students can share their learning? Could you do a video chat with an expert in the field you’ve been studying? Could you try to connect with the author of the book you’ve been reading in class?

Take a moment to reflect on what some of the favorite things you’ve done with your students. What were the elements that made them a peak moment for your kids? Possibly, one of the indicators is that there were some elements that took the learning beyond the practice phase, and into a realm where it felt more like a game or performance.

What are your thoughts? Do you have any activities that you’ve done in the past that you could make a bit more game like? Or do you have an idea of a way to make learning less like practice and more like a game that I haven’t shared already? Share your thoughts in the comments below!

Rethinking assessments

Rethinking assessments

It’s late spring, and for those of you who know much about education, you know that means we are living through spring testing. We started ILEARN testing this week. ILEARN is the Indiana summative accountability measure for the state of Indiana. The testing window opened last week, and each afternoon since it opened, I have been spending a little more than an hour as a proctor in a fourth-grade classroom.

If you’ve followed my blog for any significant amount of time, you probably know that I get jazzed up for making learning exciting. I love for our schools and our classrooms to be places of joy. The vast majority of times that I walk into classrooms in our school, that is what’s happening. You see, learning is never a quiet activity. One of my professors in college drilled a phrase into us: “Learning is social.” She encouraged us to work in groups, to discuss, to collaborate, to challenge one another so that we could all learn. She constantly reminded us that we would need to do the same type of thing when we had classrooms of our own. To put it another way, she taught us that “The smartest person in the room is the room” (I’ve heard this quote from multiple sources but believe it can first be attributed to David Weinberger). That mindset of social learning followed me for most of my teaching career – sure there were moments where we had to be quiet, but if you walked into my science classroom on most days, students were actively involved in labs, gathering data, doing research, etc.

In fact, if I’m being completely honest, when I walk into a classroom where it is totally silent, I often find myself thinking “What’s wrong?” or “Where is the learning?”

I think that’s part of why I struggle with the testing season so much. I’ve long believed that a child is so much more than a test score. I have seen students who should have been able to soar through the state assessment have a meltdown because of test anxiety. I’ve also personally witnessed a child who probably didn’t read any of the questions end up with an amazing score because of lucky guesses. How they do on a single assessment on a single day may not tell us a whole lot about who that child is.

Recently, I have seen some really well-reasoned arguments on both sides of the assessment spectrum. A recent article from The Fordham Institute argues that assessment data is needed, this year in particular, for 3 reasons: state assessments gauge where students are against grade-level expectations; state assessments provide an “external audit” of proficiency that complements course grades and diagnostic tests; baseline state assessment data is essential to tracking progress moving forward.

On the other side, a recent ASCD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) guest post shares some of the things that make standardized testing problematic any year, not just this year. Some of the reasons include: standardized tests don’t provide feedback on how to perform better; standardized tests don’t value creativity; standardized tests don’t value diversity; standardized tests cause teachers to spend more time “teaching to the test.” This article didn’t even really go into the problems of the added stress that is put onto students when being given a standardized test in a year that has been anything but normal.

The reality is that while I have my personal opinions about standardized assessment, I can’t make up quite which way to go. As an administrator, I know that data helps drive our decision-making processes to be able to better support our students. That data can also be utilized to drive professional learning for our teachers. I also know that a test environment creates stress that can literally be felt when you enter a room during testing time.

Last week, while I was in the testing environment, we were giving a math test. It was a multiple-choice computer adaptive test. What that means is that as you answer questions the following questions are adjusted based on whether your previous answers were correct or incorrect to allow for a more individual test with more precise data about a student. During this math assessment, I saw a student in tears because the test was so hard. Even though we had encouraged students to simply do their best, and not worry about the outcome, this kiddo broke down in tears. At another moment, there was a student who leaned back in his chair and simply stared at the ceiling. When I made my way over to check-in, he said “This is hard. How many more questions are there?” The assessment ended up have 45 questions. He was on number 6.

What I find in practice is that state assessments take the joyful classroom learning environment that we have worked so hard to build and suck all the joy out of it. As I write this, we are nearing the end of the second week of testing, and even I am feeling worn down by the stress it creates. Is this what we want for our kids?

We’re spending several hours a day for 6-7 days in our third and fourth-grade classes on standardized tests. It takes away from time that could be spent on more meaningful learning opportunities. It takes time away from our students digging into projects with their classmates that can help solve problems in our school and community. Plus, because of our Covid-19 protocols, our school day is already shorter than normal. In practice, when you take out that time each day for testing, we are losing the opportunity to extend learning on at least one of the subjects we would normally be working with. Not to mention the fact that it causes stress on our students – kids who struggle feel inadequate, kids who are perfectionists will never think they did well enough, kids who don’t test well might simply shut down or break down from the stress.

The reality is that for our students’ futures, simply having content knowledge isn’t what will make them successful, but rather what students are able to do with the knowledge that they have (For more on that, check out previous posts here and here). It’s time we really start rethinking standardized assessment. We need much more of a focus on performance-based assessments, where students actually have to do something with what they know.

On the bright side, I do have to give some credit. In the ILEARN, there are performance task sections. In the performance task, students have to read passages, analyze data, and then respond to questions about the passages or data. While these tests can be challenging for our students, they are more in line with the future-ready skills that our students will need in order to be successful. And as an added bonus, they don’t seem to be as stressful for the kids because even they realize that all the information they need is right there. The scores on performance tasks are based more on how they use that information. And because of the way the assessments are structured, teaching to the test would actually be in line with some of the better practices that we’re trying to use in our classrooms! Now if we can work towards an assessment system that is completely focused on performance-based assessments, and less on adaptive tests, we might better serve our kids and what their future holds.

What are your thoughts on standardized tests? Are there positives you see? Negatives? Has any of what I’ve shared above caused you to rethink assessment? Let me know in the comments below.